Pictogenesis: Stack Transpiling

Much like transpiling register machines, now we have a chance to transpile stack machines. Unfortunately, it doesn’t actually speed up the code nearly so much (the stack is just not as effective of a memory structure in this case), but it’s still an interesting bit of code.

In this case, we turn something like this:

invsub
polT
writeG
id
neg
zero?
sin
invsub
ZERO
inv

Into this:

function(X, Y) {
  this.x = X;
  this.y = Y;

  this.stack = [];
  this.r = undefined;
  this.g = undefined;
  this.b = undefined;

  this.stack.push(X);
  this.stack.push(Y);

  var arg0 = 0;
  var arg1 = 0;
  var arg2 = 0;
  var result = 0;

  // invsub
  arg0 = this.stack.pop() || 0;
  result = 1 - arg0;
  result = result % 1.0;
  this.stack.push(result);

  // polT
  arg0 = this.stack.pop() || 0;
  arg1 = this.stack.pop() || 0;
  result = Math.atan2(arg0, arg1);
  result = result % 1.0;
  this.stack.push(result);

  // writeG
  arg0 = this.stack.pop() || 0;
  this.g = arg0;

  // id
  arg0 = this.stack.pop() || 0;
  result = arg0;
  result = result % 1.0;
  this.stack.push(result);

  // neg
  arg0 = this.stack.pop() || 0;
  result = -arg0;
  result = result % 1.0;
  this.stack.push(result);

  // zero?
  arg0 = this.stack.pop() || 0;
  arg1 = this.stack.pop() || 0;
  arg2 = this.stack.pop() || 0;
  result = arg0 === 0 ? arg1 : arg2;
  result = result % 1.0;
  this.stack.push(result);

  // sin
  arg0 = this.stack.pop() || 0;
  result = Math.sin(arg0);
  result = result % 1.0;
  this.stack.push(result);

  // invsub
  arg0 = this.stack.pop() || 0;
  result = 1 - arg0;
  result = result % 1.0;
  this.stack.push(result);

  // ZERO
  result = 0;
  result = result % 1.0;
  this.stack.push(result);

  // inv
  arg0 = this.stack.pop() || 0;
  result = 1 / arg0;
  result = result % 1.0;
  this.stack.push(result);


  return [
    this.r === undefined ? this.stack.pop() || 0 : this.r,
    this.g === undefined ? this.stack.pop() || 0 : this.g,
    this.b === undefined ? this.stack.pop() || 0 : this.b,
  ];
}

The code is not actually that much different for transpiling:

transpile() {
    let patterns = [
      /^\((.*?)\) => (.*?)$/,
      /^function\((.*?)\) ({.*?})$/,
    ]

    let code = [
        `
this.run = function(X, Y) {
this.x = X;
this.y = Y;

this.stack = [];
this.r = undefined;
this.g = undefined;
this.b = undefined;

this.stack.push(X);
this.stack.push(Y);
`];
  
  // Find the maximum arity of any function
  var maxLength = 0;
  for (var command of this.program) {
    maxLength = Math.max(maxLength, command.function.length);
  }
  for (var i = 0; i < maxLength; i++) {
    code.push(`  var arg${i} = 0;`)
  }
  code.push(`  var result = 0;`)
  code.push('');

  for (command of this.program) {
    let f = command.function.toString();
    for (var pattern of patterns) {
      // Match each kind of function
      let parts = f.match(pattern);
      if (parts) {
        code.push(`  // ${command.name}`);

        // Pop the number of parameters we need
        for (var i = 0; i < command.function.length; i++) {
          code.push(`  arg${i} = this.stack.pop() || 0;`)
        }

        // Add the code
        var line = `  result = ${parts[2]};`;
        var noResult = false;
        if (parts[2].includes('{')) {
          if (parts[2].includes('return')) {
            line = parts[2].replace('return', 'result = ');
          } else {
            line = parts[2];
            noResult = true;
          } 
          line = '  ' + line.replace(/^{|}$/g, '').trim();
        }
        
        if (parts[1]) {
          parts[1].split(',').map((el, i) => {
            line = line.replaceAll(
              new RegExp("\\b" + el.trim() + "\\b", "g"),
              `arg${i}`
            );
          });
        }
        code.push(line);
        
        if (!noResult) {
          if (params.modeCall === "clamp") {
            code.push(`  result = result < 0 ? 0.0 : (result > 1 : 1.0);`);
          } else if (params.modeCall == "wrap") {
            code.push(`  result = result % 1.0;`);
          }
          code.push(`  this.stack.push(result);`);
        }
        code.push('');
      }
    }
  }

  code.push(`
return [
  this.r === undefined ? this.stack.pop() || 0 : this.r,
  this.g === undefined ? this.stack.pop() || 0 : this.g,
  this.b === undefined ? this.stack.pop() || 0 : this.b,
];
`);
  
  code.push('}');
  code = code.join('\n');
  eval(code);
}

It’s a bit more complicated, because we have to deal with a few functions that return and some that don’t. That’s the bit in the middle with the noResult variable. If you don’t do that, you end up pushing the previous result, which can have some interesting (but non desirable) results.

Demo!

map[content:
let gui;
let params = {
  genomeSize: 30,
  genomeSizeMin: 10,
  genomeSizeMax: 1000,
  modeCall: ["keep", "clamp", "wrap"],
  modeEnd: ["clamp", "wrap"],
  renderPerFrame: 100,
  renderPerFrameMax: 1000,
  noise: 10,
  noiseMin: 0.01,
  noiseMax: 100,
  noiseStep: 0.01,
};

let g, p;
let rendering = true,
  renderingX = 0,
  renderingY = 0;
let code;

function resetRendering() {
  background(0);
  rendering = false;
  renderingX = 0;
  renderingY = 0;
}

function updateP(kls) {
  if (kls) {
    p = new kls(g);
  } else {
    p = new p.constructor(g);
  }
  code.value(p.toString());
  resetRendering();
  rendering = true;
}

// Helper function to index an array by a real number
gendex = (arr, id) => arr[int(arr.length * id)];

function setup() {
  createCanvas(400, 400);
  gui = createGuiPanel();
  gui.addObject(params);
  gui.setPosition(420, 0);

  background(0);

  g = new Genome(params.genomeSize);
  p = new StackMachine(g);

  let divMachine = createDiv("machines");
  
  divMachine.child(createButton("stack").mousePressed(() => {
    g = new Genome(params.genomeSize);
    updateP(StackMachine);
  }));

  let divMutations = createDiv("mutations");

  divMutations.child(createButton("point").mousePressed(() => {
    g.mutatePoint();
    updateP();
  }));

  divMutations.child(createButton("insert").mousePressed(() => {
    g.mutateInsertion();
    updateP();
  }));

  divMutations.child(createButton("delete").mousePressed(() => {
    g.mutateDeletion();
    updateP();
  }));

  divMutations.child(createButton("duplicate").mousePressed(() => {
    g.mutateDuplication();
    updateP();
  }));

  let divControl = createDiv("control");

  divControl.child(createButton("rerender").mousePressed(() => {
    resetRendering();
    rendering = true;
  }));

  divControl.child(createButton("transpile").mousePressed(() => {
    p.transpile();
    code.value(p.run.toString());
    resetRendering();
    rendering = true;
  }));

  let block = createElement('div');
  code = createElement('textarea');
  code.style('width', '400px');
  code.style('height', '400px');
  code.value(p.toString());
  block.child(code);
}

function draw() {
  if (rendering) {
    let f = (v) => v;
    if (params.modeEnd === "clamp") {
      f = (v) => constrain(v, 0, 1);
    } else if (params.modeEnd === "wrap") {
      f = (v) => v % 1.0;
    }

    for (var i = 0; i < params.renderPerFrame; i++) {
      let c = p.run(1.0 * renderingX / width, 1.0 * renderingY / height);
      c = c.map((el) => int(255 * f(el)));

      fill(c);
      noStroke();
      rect(renderingX, renderingY, 1, 1);

      renderingX++;
      if (renderingX >= width) {
        renderingX = 0;
        renderingY++;
      }
      if (renderingY >= height) {
        rendering = false;
      }
    }
  }
}
 title:sketch.js]
map[content:
const instructions = [
  // Basic math
  {name: "id", function: (x) => x},
  {name: "add", function: (x, y) => x + y},
  {name: "sub", function: (x, y) => x - y},
  {name: "mul", function: (x, y) => x * y},
  {name: "div", function: (x, y) => x / y},
  {name: "mod", function: (x, y) => x % y},
  {name: "max", function: (x, y) => Math.max(x, y)},
  {name: "min", function: (x, y) => Math.min(x, y)},
  {name: "abs", function: (x) => Math.abs(x)},
  {name: "inv", function: (x) => 1 / x},
  {name: "invsub", function: (x) => 1 - x},
  {name: "neg", function: (x) => -x},
  {name: "sin", function: (x) => Math.sin(x)},
  {name: "exp", function: (x) => Math.exp(x)},
  {name: "log", function: (x) => Math.log(x)},
  {name: "sqrt", function: (x) => Math.sqrt(x)},
  
  // Polar coordinate conversions
  {name: "polR", function: (x, y) => Math.sqrt(x * x + y * y)},
  {name: "polT", function: (x, y) => Math.atan2(x, y)},
  
  // Constants
  {name: "ZERO", function: () => 0},
  {name: "ONE", function: () => 1},
  
  // Conditionals
  {name: "zero?", function: (c, t, f) => c === 0 ? t : f},
  {name: "equal?", function: (a, b, t, f) => a === b ? t : f},
  {name: "gt?", function: (a, b, t, f) => a > b ? t : f},
  
  // Perlin noise
  {name: "noise1", function: (x) => noise(params.noise * x)},
  {name: "noise2", function: (x, y) => noise(params.noise * x, params.noise * y)},
];

const stackInstructions = instructions.concat([
  // Functions to read/write X/Y/R/G/B (also on the stack)
  {name: "readX", function: function() { return this.x;}},
  {name: "readY", function: function() { return this.y;}},
  {name: "writeR", function: function(v) { this.r = v; }},
  {name: "writeG", function: function(v) { this.g = v; }},
  {name: "writeB", function: function(v) { this.b = v; }},

  // Duplicate the top element of the stack
  {
    name: "dup",
    function: function(x) {
      this.stack.push(x);
      this.stack.push(x);
    }
  },
]);
 title:ops.js]
map[content:
class StackMachine {
  constructor(genome) {
    this.program = [];
    for (var i = 0; i < genome.data.length;) {
      this.program.push(gendex(stackInstructions, genome.data[i++]));
    }
  }

  // Push x,y; pop r,g,b (if they weren't written)
  run(x, y) {
    // Store x/y/r/g/b on object for read/write
    this.x = x;
    this.y = y;

    this.stack = [];
    this.r = undefined;
    this.g = undefined;
    this.b = undefined;

    this.stack.push(x);
    this.stack.push(y);

    for (var command of this.program) {
      // Collect parameters by popping
      var args = [];
      while (args.length < command.function.length) {
        args.push(this.stack.pop() || 0);
      }

      // If we get a result, push it back onto the stack
      var result = command.function.apply(this, args);
      if (result !== undefined) {
        if (params.modeCall === "clamp") {
          result = constrain(result, 0, 1);
        } else if (params.modeCall == "wrap") {
          result = result % 1.0;
        }
        this.stack.push(result);
      }
    }

    return [
      this.r === undefined ? this.stack.pop() || 0 : this.r,
      this.g === undefined ? this.stack.pop() || 0 : this.g,
      this.b === undefined ? this.stack.pop() || 0 : this.b,
    ];
  }

  transpile() {
      let patterns = [
        /^\((.*?)\) => (.*?)$/,
        /^function\((.*?)\) ({.*?})$/,
      ]

      let code = [
          `
this.run = function(X, Y) {
  this.x = X;
  this.y = Y;

  this.stack = [];
  this.r = undefined;
  this.g = undefined;
  this.b = undefined;

  this.stack.push(X);
  this.stack.push(Y);
`];
    
    // Find the maximum arity of any function
    var maxLength = 0;
    for (var command of this.program) {
      maxLength = Math.max(maxLength, command.function.length);
    }
    for (var i = 0; i < maxLength; i++) {
      code.push(`  var arg${i} = 0;`)
    }
    code.push(`  var result = 0;`)
    code.push('');

    for (command of this.program) {
      let f = command.function.toString();
      for (var pattern of patterns) {
        // Match each kind of function
        let parts = f.match(pattern);
        if (parts) {
          code.push(`  // ${command.name}`);

          // Pop the number of parameters we need
          for (var i = 0; i < command.function.length; i++) {
            code.push(`  arg${i} = this.stack.pop() || 0;`)
          }

          // Add the code
          var line = `  result = ${parts[2]};`;
          var noResult = false;
          if (parts[2].includes('{')) {
            if (parts[2].includes('return')) {
              line = parts[2].replace('return', 'result = ');
            } else {
              line = parts[2];
              noResult = true;
            } 
            line = '  ' + line.replace(/^{|}$/g, '').trim();
          }
          
          if (parts[1]) {
            parts[1].split(',').map((el, i) => {
              line = line.replaceAll(
                new RegExp("\\b" + el.trim() + "\\b", "g"),
                `arg${i}`
              );
            });
          }
          code.push(line);
          
          if (!noResult) {
            if (params.modeCall === "clamp") {
              code.push(`  result = result < 0 ? 0.0 : (result > 1 : 1.0);`);
            } else if (params.modeCall == "wrap") {
              code.push(`  result = result % 1.0;`);
            }
            code.push(`  this.stack.push(result);`);
          }
          code.push('');
        }
      }
    }

    code.push(`
  return [
    this.r === undefined ? this.stack.pop() || 0 : this.r,
    this.g === undefined ? this.stack.pop() || 0 : this.g,
    this.b === undefined ? this.stack.pop() || 0 : this.b,
  ];
`);
    
    code.push('}');
    code = code.join('\n');
    eval(code);
  }

  toString() {
    return this.program.map((cmd) => cmd.name).join('\n');
  }
}
 title:stack.js]
map[content:
class Genome {
  constructor(length) {
    length = length || 10;
    this.data = [];
    while (this.data.length < length) {
      this.data.push(random());
    }
  }

  // Apply up to one of each kind of mutation to this genome
  mutate() {
    var index;

    if (random() < params.mutationRate_point) mutatePoint();
    if (random() < params.mutationRate_insertion) mutateInsertion();
    if (random() < params.mutationRate_deletion) mutateDeletion();
    if (random() < params.mutationRate_duplication) mutateDuplication();
  }

  mutatePoint() {
    var index = Math.floor(random() * this.data.length);
    this.data[index] = random();
  }

  mutateInsertion() {
    var index = Math.floor(random() * this.data.length);
    this.data.splice(index, 0, random());
  }


  mutateDeletion() {
    var index = Math.floor(random() * this.data.length);
    this.data.splice(index, 1);
  }


  mutateDuplication() {
    var index = Math.floor(random() * this.data.length);
    this.data.splice(index, 0, this.data[index]);
  }

  crossover(other) {
    var child = new Genome();
    var thisIndex = Math.floor(random() * this.data.length);
    var otherIndex = Math.floor(random() * other.data.length);

    child.data = this.data.slice(0, thisIndex).concat(other.data.slice(otherIndex));
    return child;
  }
}
 title:genome.js]

I’ve actually gotten a few much cooler images from stack machines now:

So they’re in the running! It would be interesting to take the genome for one machine and directly convert it to the other. I expect there will be no relation at all, but still interesting.