An SPF DNS Server

The Sender Policy Framework is one of those things that’s really powerful and useful to help prevent phishing and email spam, but can be a royal pain to work with. Specifically, SPF is a series of DNS TXT records1 with a specific format that can be looked up by any email service to verify that an email was sent by a server that should be authorized to send email on your behalf. For example

"v=spf1 ip4: ip4: a -all"
  • v=spf1 - tells the client this is an SPF record and should always start the record
  • {key}[:{value}]? - one of many different key/value pairs that can define the record
    • in the case above a ip4 key species an IPv4 address range that can send emails on your behalf (the value can be optional)
    • the a above is another special case where if the sender domain ([email protected] would be resolves via a DNS A record to the server that sent the email, it’s allows
  • -all is a fallthrough case meaning ‘fail all that didn’t match a previous case

There are a number of other cases, but we’ll get to the other interesting ones in a bit.


For the basic case of sending your own email, this isn’t a problem. Specify either a if your application servers directly send email (and aren’t behind a load balancer) or specify the IP(s) of your servers and you’re golden. But what if you want to allow others to send emails on your behalf? Either for marketing purposes or because you are working with a third party email sender.

Well, then you’re going to want records. That means that you’re telling the email client to go fetch the SPF configuration from and include those IP ranges as ones that can send email for your domain.

But what if that mail-sender includes other domains? And what if you have multiple third parties?

Unfortunately, this will quickly get out of hand with many many recursive DNS lookups for every email received, so in their infinite wisdom2, SPF is limited to 10 recursive calls. So if you have more than that… what next?

Well, that’s where we get to the meat of this post!

SPF Macros

Because it turns out that the powers that be also gave SPF a more powerful macro language built right into DNS that you can use for exactly something like this. You have to find a service that will do it for you–or write your own–but you can offload all of the work of recursively looking up these records into a single record:

"v=spf1 include:%{i}._ip.%{h}._ehlo.%{d} -all"

What’s this? MAGIC!

Well, macro. What that means is that when a server tries to validate an email from, they will fill in the IP (%{i}), the SMTP EHLO response (%{h}), and the SPF domain (%{d}). There is actually a pretty intense list:

  • %{s}: The email sender ([email protected])
  • %{l}: The username (jp)
  • %{o}: The domain (
  • %{d}: The current SPF authority (usually equal to %{o})
  • %{i}: The source IP (
  • %{p}: A reverse DNS lookup of the domain, if configured (using PTR records)
  • %{v}: Either in-addr for IPv4 or ip6 for IPv6
  • %{h}: The domain given by SMTP when connecting in the EHLO/HELO message (

The _ip parts are basically so that I can parse the DNS record on my end more easily, but you really could just do something like this: %{i} and only process the IP. Or get far more complicated and do something like %{l}.%{i} to validate that a specific email address should be able to send from a specific IP. The possilibities are endless3!

Given just this information though, we want to return a custom DNS record. So if eventually (a legit server) should be able to send email and (an attacker) should not, this should work:

$ dig TXT +short

"v=spf1 ip4: -all"

$ dig TXT +short

"v=spf1 -all"

Including anything that would normally be in an include record.

Let’s do it.

Building a list of IP addresses

So the first thing to do will be to take an existing list of SPF records and recursively parsing them ourselves in order to get a list of all IPs that we should respond to. We don’t have to listen to the standard 10 query limit, which is sort of the entire point of this thing:

def _parse_spf_value(record, domain = None):
    '''Parse a SPF record to get all matching IPs/domains'''

    logging.debug('parse_spf_value({}, {})'.format(record, domain))

    match = _spf_regex.match(str(record))
    if not match:
        logging.warning('Failed to parse: {}'.format(record))

    # We don't care about the mode
    elif'key') == 'all':

    # Resolve a records for the domain
    elif'key') == 'a':
        for response in _simple_dns('value') or domain, 'A'):
            yield ipaddress.ip_network(response)

    # Resolve mx records for the domain
    elif'key') == 'mx':
        for response in _simple_dns('value') or domain, 'MX'):
            for subresponse in _simple_dns(response, 'A'):
                yield ipaddress.ip_network(subresponse)

    # Resolve ptr records for the domain
    elif'key') == 'ptr':
        logging.warning('NOT IMPLEMENTED: {}'.format(record))

    # Check if a given domain resolves
    elif'key') == 'exists':
        yield ExistsNetwork('value'))

    # Literal IP addresses/subnets
    elif'key') in ('ip4', 'ip6'):
        yield ipaddress.ip_network('value'))

    # Recursive lookup
    elif'key') in ('include', 'redirect'):
        for response in _simple_dns('value'), 'TXT'):
            if response.startswith('v=spf1'):
                for part in response.split()[1:]:
                    yield from _parse_spf_value(part,'value'))

        raise Exception('Unknown SPF record format: {}'.format(record))

This is going to take in an SPF record and parse through all of the different types of values it could be. An a record says query the domain and get the IP. An mx record does the same with a DNS MX record. ip4 and ip6 map to DNS ranges, while I’ll represent using the ipaddress module. include and redirect are recursive cases, so grab the DNS (using _simple_dns, I’ll be right back to that) and recursively parse that as well.

For doing DNS, I’m going to use dnspython to resolve the query and then just return the body of any results. This works for A and MX records (get the IPs) and include/redirect (get the recursive SPF record).

def _simple_dns(domain, type):
    '''Return a list of just DNS values of the given type for the given domain.'''

    logging.debug('simple_dns({}, {})'.format(domain, type))

        query = dnspython_resolver.query(domain, type)
        for answer in query.response.answer:
            for line in answer.to_text().split('\n'):
                # Remove domain, TTL, 'IN', and type
                line = line.split(' ', 4)[-1].strip('"')
                yield line

    except dnspython_resolver.NXDOMAIN:
        logging.warning('{} query failed for: {}'.format(type, domain))

The last case is exists records / ExistsNetwork. This is basically an IP rule that we need to look up dynamically later:

class ExistsNetwork(object):
    '''A custom 'network' which matches SPF exists records by querying them.'''

    def __init__(self, host):
        '''Initialize this network with the hostname to match.'''

        self._host = host

    def __contains__(self, ip):
        '''Check if a given IP address can be resolved by this rule.'''

            response = dnspython_resolver.query(self._host.replace('%{ip}', str(ip)), 'A')
            return True

        except dnspython_resolver.NXDOMAIN:
            return False

Okay, so we have all of the data. How what?

Making a DNS server

This really should be easier (and perhaps sometime I’ll solve that very problem), but for the moment, I’m going to use Python’s Twisted to make the server, since that’s the one that I found enough documentation for to put together a simple server without writing the guts of the packets myself.

class SPFResolver(object):
    '''Resolve SPF macros to IP addresses.'''

    def __init__(self, hostname, internal_records = [], external_records = [], ttl = 300):
        '''Create an SPF resolver based on a given macro format.'''

        self._internal_records = internal_records
        self._external_records = external_records
        self._ttl = ttl

        # Expand/reformat the hostname to a regular expression
        for key, name in _spf_macros:
            hostname = hostname.replace('%{' + key + '}', '(?P<' + name + '>.*?)')
        self._hostname_regex = re.compile(hostname)

        self._cache = []
        self._cache_refreshed = 0

    def _refresh_cache(self):
        '''Update the list of networks based on the config file.'''

        self._cache = [
            for values in [self._internal_records, self._external_records]
            for value in values
            for network in _parse_spf_value(value)
        self._cache_refreshed = time.time()

    def query(self, query, timeout = None):
        '''Resolve SPF queries using this resolver.'''

        logging.debug('dns query received: {}'.format(query))

        # Check if this is actually our job
        name =
        if query.type != dns.TXT or not self._hostname_regex.match(name):

        # Check if the network needs refreshed
        if self._cache_refreshed + self._ttl < time.time():

        # Check the incoming record against all known records
        match = self._hostname_regex.match(name)'resolving {}: {}'.format(name, match.groups()))

        target_ip = ipaddress.ip_address('ip'))
        authority = additional = answer = []

        data = 'v=spf1 -all'
        for network in self._cache:
            if target_ip in network:
                data = 'v=spf1 ip{mode}:{ip} -all'.format(mode = target_ip.version, ip = target_ip)

        answer = [dns.RRHeader(type = dns.TXT, name = name, payload = dns.Record_TXT(data.encode()))]
        logging.debug('dns response generated: {}'.format([answer, authority, additional]))

        return defer.succeed((answer, authority, additional))

What this will do is:

  1. Parse the parameters from the query (get the IP we’re looking for)
  2. Make a function that can update the SPF list periodically without having to do it for every request
  3. Respond to a DNS query with either a SPF pass for the IP or an SPF fail

Then we just have to hook it up to twisted:

if __name__ == '__main__':

    spf_resolver = spf.SPFResolver(
        hostname = config.get('dns/hostname'),
        internal_records = config.get('spf/internal'),
        external_records = config.get('spf/external'),
        ttl = config.get('spf/ttl', 300),

    factory = server.DNSServerFactory(
        clients = [spf_resolver]

    protocol = dns.DNSDatagramProtocol(controller = factory)

    dns_port = config.get('dns/port', 53)

    reactor.listenUDP(dns_port, protocol)
    reactor.listenTCP(dns_port, factory)'Starting DNS server on port {}'.format(dns_port))

And that’s really it. Now the queries as I showed above work great:

$ dig TXT +short

"v=spf1 ip4: -all"

$ dig TXT +short

"v=spf1 -all"

I’ve had something just like this running on a single small server for years without issue. It doesn’t respond to arbitrary queries, so the attack surface of an open resolver isn’t an issue, although I could probably use a bit of rate limiting just in case. But it’s been working fine for a while.

Now, it’s been a bit, so I’m probably going to rewrite this in another language (I’m thinking golang) half because it’s interesting and half to tune what I missed the first time. But it’s pretty cool to me!

Appendix: A note on NS records

You may have noticed that I used %{i} as my domain. This is because this is going to be the authoritative nameserver for any DNS queries for a specific subdomain (and all children subdomains). So if you tried to host it at %{i} and you also have a server at, things will go badly for you (or you need to resolve those IPs yourself). Once you have it running though, just configure a DNS NS record to point NS {this server} and you’re golden.

  1. Historically, there was a SPF DNS record type, but that has been replaced by the more general purpose TXT record. ↩︎

  2. I get it. You don’t want to DDoS DNS servers for every email. It’s still annoying. ↩︎

  3. Barring the death of the universe and all that. Oh, and the maximum length of DNS queries. ↩︎