# A Smart MySQL Wrapper

One thing that I often need to do is deal with a large collection of database servers in different clusters and in different environments. On top of that, sometimes, I want a UI, sometime I want a CLI to script. And sometimes I’m on a VPN and sometimes I’m not. All together, it’s a rather complicated number of saved connections and CLI switches and everything else. All together, I want:

• Specify the cluster, environment, and mode (read/write/adhoc)
• Specify if I want to run via CLI or via UI
• Specify an optional user with safely stored and used passwords
• Automatically connected via SSH tunnel if I’m not on VPN, but not if I am (for CLI or VPN)

Let’s do it!

# Parsing command line parameters

First problem, let’s get some command line arguments. I’m going to use it like this:

$my-mysql {environment} {cluster} {mode} [--ui] [--user {user}] [--verbose]  So that means we need to argparse it like so: parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description = 'MySQL wrapper, connects to a MySQL wrapper or runs a query from stdin') parser.add_argument(dest = 'environment', help = 'Environment to run in, if an IP is specified it will be used as hostname') parser.add_argument(dest = 'database', help = 'Database to connect to') parser.add_argument(dest = 'mode', help = 'Mode to run in (read,write,adhoc)') parser.add_argument('--ui', action = 'store_true', help = 'Launch in SQL pro') parser.add_argument('-u', '--user', default = 'default', help = 'The credentials block to use') parser.add_argument('-s', '--sshtunnel', default = 'my-tunnel', help = 'The SSH tunnel host to use') parser.add_argument('-v', '--verbose', action = 'store_true', help = 'Run in verbose mode') args = parser.parse_args()  # Determining DB hostname Our hostnames are made somewhat easier by the fact that our DB folks have named the hosts nicely with CNAMEs everywhere, so that {cluster}-{mode}.{domain} always resolves to what we need. We just need a map of environment to domain: domain_map = { 'prod': 'domain.com', 'qa': 'staging-domain.com', 'dev': 'development-domain.com', } if '.' in args.environment: host = args.environment args.mode = 'custom' else: host = '{db}-{mode}.{domain}'.format( db = args.database, mode = args.mode, domain = domain_map.get(args.environment) or args.environment, )  That takes care of connecting to the correct DB mode/host, but next we need to determine if we’re on a VPN or not: # VPN detection on_vpn = (os.system('dig +short myip.opendns.com @resolver1.opendns.com | egrep "^(10|50|52)\\." > /dev/null') == 0)  It’s a trick I’d previously used in Dynamic Automatic Proxy and SSH Config Tricks, using DNS to tell what my local IP is. If it’s in a private range (or in this case, an AWS IP starting with 50 or 52), then I’m already on VPN and don’t need another step. Otherwise, I do. # Connecting to the mysql client Let’s start with the CLI mode. If we’re on VPN, connect directly. If not, we want to establish an SSH tunnel with the sshtunnel library and then connect via that: env = os.environ.copy() env['MYSQL_PWD'] = credentials['password'] if on_vpn: subprocess.check_call( ['mysql', '-A', '-h', host, '-u', credentials['user'], db_map.get(args.database) or args.database], env = env, ) else: with sshtunnel.open_tunnel((args.sshtunnel, 22), remote_bind_address = (host, 3306)) as tunnel: logging.info(f'Established SSH tunnel from {tunnel.local_bind_host}:{tunnel.local_bind_port} via {args.sshtunnel}:22 to {host}:3306') subprocess.check_call( ['mysql', '-A', '-h', '127.0.0.1', '-P', str(tunnel.local_bind_port), '-u', credentials['user'], db_map.get(args.database) or args.database], env = env, )  On additional trick is setting the MYSQL_PWD environment variable before calling the command with subprocess . That way we can pass the password without it being displayed when we’re in verbose mode. Connecting via the SSH tunnel was something that I was particularly proud of. Essentially, we can make an SSH tunnel via a bastion host to the MySQL host inside a private network and then connecting to that tunnel, which in turn forwards the connection through the tunnel. It doesn’t even cost that much performancewise. Because we’re using subprocess, we can actually do fun things with pipes: $ echo 'select * from users where user_id = 1337' | my-mysql prod primary adhoc
...

\$ echo 'select * from files where creator_id in (' \
(echo 'select user_id from users where creation_date > "2020-01-01"' | my-mysql prod primary adhoc | skiphead | commaify) \
| my-mysql prod secondary adhoc


References for skiphead and commaify: Tiny Helper Scripts for Command Line MySQL

Pretty cool.

# Connecting via SequelPro

Next, I want to use a UI sometimes. Since I’m on a Mac, the best client I’ve found by far is SequelPro. At first, I despired at finding a way to launch SequelPro from a script, it doesn’t have helpful switches for that. But then I came across .spf file associations. It turns out that .spf files are associated with SequelPro by default. So what is a SPF file?

XML (more specifically a plist!

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC "-//Apple//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN" "http://www.apple.com/DTDs/PropertyList-1.0.dtd">
<plist version="1.0">
<dict>
<key>version</key><integer>1</integer>
<key>encrypted</key><false/>
<key>format</key><string>connection</string>
<key>ContentFilters</key><dict/>
<key>auto_connect</key><true/>

<key>rdbms_type</key><string>mysql</string>

<key>data</key>
<dict>
<key>connection</key>
<dict>
<key>name</key><string>{user} @ {host} ({mode})</string>
<key>colorIndex</key><integer>{color}</integer>

<key>host</key><string>{host}</string>
<key>database</key><string>{db}</string>
<key>user</key><string>{user}</string>

<key>rdbms_type</key><string>mysql</string>

<key>type</key><string>SPSSHTunnelConnection</string>
<key>ssh_host</key><string>{tunnel}</string>
</dict>
</dict>

<key>queryFavorites</key><array/>
<key>queryHistory</key><array/>
</dict>
</plist>


It took a bit to work out coloring so that I could tell different type of connections apart (if you have enough tabs open, things go all sorts of sideways). We do have to have a file somewhere, so I used tempfile to make a quick file and then tell the system to open it. It works pretty well.

path = os.path.join(tempfile.tempdir or '/tmp', 'db-{}-{}.spf'.format(host, args.mode))
os.makedirs(os.path.dirname(path), exist_ok = True)
logging.info('Using temporary file: {}'.format(path))

with open(path, 'w') as fout:
fout.write(sqlpro_template.format(
color = mode_color_map[args.mode],
db = db_map.get(args.database) or args.database,
host = host,
user = credentials['user'],

tempfile should automatically clean up the files (since they have passwords stored…), but just in case, we should deal with them ourselfs.
Now, there is a gotcha here. We always use the SSH tunnel. I could very easily select a template just without the SPSSHTunnelConnection key, it just hasn’t really come up.