A quick programming post, since it’s been a while, inspired by this video:
I’m not going to go quite as far as that, but I thought it would be interesting to write up some quick code to generate portmanteaus1.
Basically2, a portmanteau is a combination of two words, smooshing them together3 and dropping some letters from each. In this case, what I’m specifically interested in is ‘perfect’ portmanteaus (I’m not sure if there is a better term for it), where the suffix of one word exactly matches the prefix of the other.
As an example, consider the words
termine. The last three letters of the former, perfectly matches the first three of the latter, so let’s overlap them.
So how do we do it?
(define current-minimum-overlap (make-parameter 3)) (define (portmanteau left right) (define maximum-overlap (- (min (string-length left) (string-length right)) 1)) (for*/first ([overlap (in-range maximum-overlap (- (current-minimum-overlap) 1) -1)] #:when (equal? (substring left (- (string-length left) overlap)) (substring right 0 overlap))) (list left right (string-append (substring left 0 (- (string-length left) overlap)) right))))
Should be straight forward enough. Basically, we start with the longest possible overlap (1 less than the length of the shorter word, since we don’t want to completely subsume a word), counting down until we reach some minimum overlap. For each possible sequence, we compare the prefix and suffix of the two words, only proceeding into the body of the loop when they match. That’s the beauty of
, it will loop until it gets a valid value, returning when it does.
And that’s really it. Try it out with the example from earlier:
> (portmanteau "hamster" "termite") '("hamster" "termite" "hamstermite")
Since that was so quick, let’s put some simple wrapper code around it in order to find all portmanteaus from a given word list. First, do the heavy lifting of finding portmanteaus:
(define (portmanteaus) (define words (for*/list ([raw-line (in-lines)] [line (in-value (string-trim (string-downcase raw-line)))] #:when (not (equal? "" line))) line)) (for*/list ([left (in-list words)] [right (in-list words)] #:when (not (eq? left right)) [portmanteau (in-value (portmanteau left right))] #:when portmanteau) portmanteau))
After that, a wrapper to process some command line parameters and render output in a few different ways:
(define paths (command-line #:program "portmanteau" #:once-each [("--minimum-overlap") overlap "Specify the minimum necessary overlap (default = 3)" (cond [(string->number overlap) => current-minimum-overlap] [else (error '--minimum-overlap "must specify a number")])] #:once-any [("--verbose") "Print in verbose mode (default = false)" (verbose-mode #t)] [("--graph") "Print out a dotfile" (graph-mode #t)] #:args paths paths)) (when (null? paths) (set! paths '("-"))) (for ([path (in-list paths)]) (define results (cond [(equal? path "-") (portmanteaus)] [else (with-input-from-file path portmanteaus)])) (define g (unweighted-graph/directed '())) (for ([result (in-list results)]) (match-define (list left right portmanteau) result) (cond [(verbose-mode) (printf "~a + ~a = ~a\n" left right portmanteau)] [(graph-mode) (add-edge! g (~a "\"" left "\"") (~a "\"" right "\""))] [else (displayln portmanteau)])) (when (graph-mode) (displayln (graphviz g))))
Now you can do some interesting things:
$ racket portmanteau.rkt animals.txt brown recluse spider monkey gila monstermite grasshopperegrine falcon hamstermite leechidna ottermite
Just in case you cannot figure out what animals actually went into that list:
$ racket portmanteau.rkt --verbose animals.txt brown recluse spider + spider monkey = brown recluse spider monkey gila monster + termite = gila monstermite grasshopper + peregrine falcon = grasshopperegrine falcon hamster + termite = hamstermite leech + echidna = leechidna otter + termite = ottermite
Or if you want to be a little more general, matching with only 2 characters rather than the default 3:
$ racket portmanteau.rkt --minimum-overlap 2 --verbose animals.txt armadillo + loon = armadilloon armadillo + lorikeet = armadillorikeet armadillo + louse = armadillouse black mamba + badger = black mambadger brown bear + armadillo = brown bearmadillo brown recluse spider + spider monkey = brown recluse spider monkey chinchilaa + aardvark = chinchilaardvark copperhead snake + kestrel = copperhead snakestrel coyote + termite = coyotermite crow + owl = crowl eagle + leech = eagleech eagle + leopard seal = eagleopard seal echidna + narwhal = echidnarwhal gecko + koala = geckoala gila monster + termite = gila monstermite grasshopper + peregrine falcon = grasshopperegrine falcon hamster + termite = hamstermite hyena + narwhal = hyenarwhal jackal + albatross = jackalbatross king cobra + rattlesnake = king cobrattlesnake king cobra + raven = king cobraven kingsnake + kestrel = kingsnakestrel kiwi + wild boar = kiwild boar leech + chinchilaa = leechinchilaa leech + echidna = leechidna leopard seal + albatross = leopard sealbatross narwhal + albatross = narwhalbatross ostrich + chinchilaa = ostrichinchilaa otter + termite = ottermite polar bear + armadillo = polar bearmadillo rattlesnake + kestrel = rattlesnakestrel sloth bear + armadillo = sloth bearmadillo snapping turtle + leech = snapping turtleech snapping turtle + leopard seal = snapping turtleopard seal sparrow + owl = sparrowl sperm whale + leech = sperm whaleech sperm whale + leopard seal = sperm whaleopard seal sponge + gecko = spongecko swan + anaconda = swanaconda wild boar + armadillo = wild boarmadillo
Heh. Narwhalbatross. Wild boarmadillo. 😄
And as a final bonus, using the graph library I’ve used (and contributed to) before, we can render the structure of the thing):
$ racket portmanteau.rkt --graph --minimum-overlap 2 animals.txt \ | sed "s/edge \[dir=none\];//g" \ | fdp -Tpng > animals.png \ && open animals.png
Think of the arrows as going from the stuck on word to where it’s sticking rather than in the order the words would be written. It’s easy enough to change though if you’d like, just swap the arguments in the
add-edge! call above.
And… that’s it. Not much more to do with this one, unless I want to duplicate the above video and portmanteau all the things! We’ll see.
As with all my code, you can see the entire thing on GitHub: portmanteau.rkt